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1

Betaine has which amino acid in its structure?




2

Betaine acts as a ________ by providing proteins and enzymes with protection from environmental stressors.




3

Betaine may help to increase muscular strength and power through __________.




4

Compared to dietary consumption, supplementation with betaine ______________.




5

Concerning safety with supplementation of betaine, which of the following is true?




6

Betaine is often used in animals to 




7

Concerning research in humans, betaine has been shown to




8

Concerning long-term effects on strength and power, betaine research seems to be ____________.




9

While betaine may be beneficial for ____________, it does not appear to be similarly beneficial of ____________.




10

According to Hannon, Close, and Morton (2020), what should be the primary focus for those working with youth athletes?




11

Sex-related differences in nutritional requirements are related to ____________.




12

Changes in body mass during maturation are primarily due to ______________.




13

One anatomical and physiological difference between young athletes and adult athletes is that younger athletes have _____________________________.




14

The total daily amount of energy expended can be found by adding which of the following together?




15

Including those participating in the same sport, which component of energy expenditure is the most variable (when controlling for body mass)?




16

Low energy availability ((calories consumed - calories expended)/fat free mass) may be more common in young athletes of which of the following sports?




17

According to the authors, what is the recommended amount of carbohydrate intake for young athletes?




18

While recommended fiber intake is often ≥ 25 g/kg for young athletes, actual intake in young athletes may be as low as ___________.




19

It is recommended that young athletes have ________ absolute intake of fat compared to non-athlete peers.




20

Based off the recommended amount of protein for young athletes, how much would a 60-kg athlete require?




21

How often should young athletes eat?




22

Which of the following occupations is qualified and credentialed to provide individualized nutrition plans?




23

A low-carbohydrate diet is defined as having less than _________ per day.




24

Which type of diet may have a range of 60 – 80% of caloric intake coming from fats?




25

Restricting the time allowed for feeding in a single day to 8 hours is a form of ___________.




26

Based on the reviewed research, which of the following activities would be most benefitted by a pre-exercise meal?




27

An acute exercise-induced loss of body weight of _______ is consistent with dehydration and may result in substantial losses in strength.




28

Creatine has been shown to increase strength during activities of less than _______ regardless of dosage.




29

Consuming protein sources with complete amino acid profiles activate the ____________ pathway which supports muscle growth.




30

Complete protein sources contain ____________.




31

Iron deficiency is more common in female athletes involved in endurance sports where as many as _______ may be iron deficient.




32

“Functional foods” are those that may reduce exercise-induced muscular damage caused by ______________.




33

Green tea and black tea both have antioxidants that may be _____________________.




34

Published research evaluating the effects of green and black teas on inflammation following high-intensity exercise bouts could be summarized in which of the following ways?




35

Concerning exercise-induced muscle damage, most of the research shows that green and black teas are __________________damage.




36

Which of the following does research support as a mechanism for loss of strength postexercise?




37

While there is limited amount of research, both green and black teas may be beneficial at reducing __________.




38

Theoretically, green and black teas should be able to reduce oxidative stress with the _____________ found in them.




39

Based on the review of green and black tea supplementation, research ______________ supplementation for benefits of recovery postexercise.




40

________________ associated with diabetes management, cancer protection, and good cardiovascular health.




41

Which of the following accurately describes changes in nutritional supplement usage over the past 15 – 20 years?




42

There are more than 85,000 nutritional supplements available in the United States, but the Dietary Supplement Label Database of the National Institute of Health has label information for approximately how many of them?




43

Who is responsible for safety and the accuracy of label claims on nutritional supplements in the United States?




44

The ___________ may become involved in regulation of a specific nutritional supplement after a sufficient amount of adverse reactions have been documented.




45

While approximately 1 out of every 2 Americans utilizes nutritional supplements, what percentage report the usage to their medical providers?




46

The lack of transparency about supplement usage may __________________________.




47

Vitamin C is often recommended for its immune system benefits. Which of the following best describes the level of science-based evidence backing this claim?




48

While the exact amount varies, which of the following ranges likely reflects the percentage of athletes that consume nutritional supplements?




49

What is the high end of the range of supplements that may contain unlabeled ingredients?




50

When working with an individual that has a medically confirmed nutritional deficiency, you find that the deficiency likely could be resolved by the individual altering their diet. What is the logical next step?




1

Betaine has which amino acid in its structure?




2

Betaine acts as a ________ by providing proteins and enzymes with protection from environmental stressors.




3

Betaine may help to increase muscular strength and power through __________.




4

Compared to dietary consumption, supplementation with betaine ______________.




5

Concerning safety with supplementation of betaine, which of the following is true?




6

Betaine is often used in animals to 




7

Concerning research in humans, betaine has been shown to




8

Concerning long-term effects on strength and power, betaine research seems to be ____________.




9

While betaine may be beneficial for ____________, it does not appear to be similarly beneficial of ____________.




10

According to Hannon, Close, and Morton (2020), what should be the primary focus for those working with youth athletes?




11

Sex-related differences in nutritional requirements are related to ____________.




12

Changes in body mass during maturation are primarily due to ______________.




13

One anatomical and physiological difference between young athletes and adult athletes is that younger athletes have _____________________________.




14

The total daily amount of energy expended can be found by adding which of the following together?




15

Including those participating in the same sport, which component of energy expenditure is the most variable (when controlling for body mass)?




16

Low energy availability ((calories consumed - calories expended)/fat free mass) may be more common in young athletes of which of the following sports?




17

According to the authors, what is the recommended amount of carbohydrate intake for young athletes?




18

While recommended fiber intake is often ≥ 25 g/kg for young athletes, actual intake in young athletes may be as low as ___________.




19

It is recommended that young athletes have ________ absolute intake of fat compared to non-athlete peers.




20

Based off the recommended amount of protein for young athletes, how much would a 60-kg athlete require?




21

How often should young athletes eat?




22

Which of the following occupations is qualified and credentialed to provide individualized nutrition plans?




23

A low-carbohydrate diet is defined as having less than _________ per day.




24

Which type of diet may have a range of 60 – 80% of caloric intake coming from fats?




25

Restricting the time allowed for feeding in a single day to 8 hours is a form of ___________.




26

Based on the reviewed research, which of the following activities would be most benefitted by a pre-exercise meal?




27

An acute exercise-induced loss of body weight of _______ is consistent with dehydration and may result in substantial losses in strength.




28

Creatine has been shown to increase strength during activities of less than _______ regardless of dosage.




29

Consuming protein sources with complete amino acid profiles activate the ____________ pathway which supports muscle growth.




30

Complete protein sources contain ____________.




31

Iron deficiency is more common in female athletes involved in endurance sports where as many as _______ may be iron deficient.




32

“Functional foods” are those that may reduce exercise-induced muscular damage caused by ______________.




33

Green tea and black tea both have antioxidants that may be _____________________.




34

Published research evaluating the effects of green and black teas on inflammation following high-intensity exercise bouts could be summarized in which of the following ways?




35

Concerning exercise-induced muscle damage, most of the research shows that green and black teas are __________________damage.




36

Which of the following does research support as a mechanism for loss of strength postexercise?




37

While there is limited amount of research, both green and black teas may be beneficial at reducing __________.




38

Theoretically, green and black teas should be able to reduce oxidative stress with the _____________ found in them.




39

Based on the review of green and black tea supplementation, research ______________ supplementation for benefits of recovery postexercise.




40

________________ associated with diabetes management, cancer protection, and good cardiovascular health.




41

Which of the following accurately describes changes in nutritional supplement usage over the past 15 – 20 years?




42

There are more than 85,000 nutritional supplements available in the United States, but the Dietary Supplement Label Database of the National Institute of Health has label information for approximately how many of them?




43

Who is responsible for safety and the accuracy of label claims on nutritional supplements in the United States?




44

The ___________ may become involved in regulation of a specific nutritional supplement after a sufficient amount of adverse reactions have been documented.




45

While approximately 1 out of every 2 Americans utilizes nutritional supplements, what percentage report the usage to their medical providers?




46

The lack of transparency about supplement usage may __________________________.




47

Vitamin C is often recommended for its immune system benefits. Which of the following best describes the level of science-based evidence backing this claim?




48

While the exact amount varies, which of the following ranges likely reflects the percentage of athletes that consume nutritional supplements?




49

What is the high end of the range of supplements that may contain unlabeled ingredients?




50

When working with an individual that has a medically confirmed nutritional deficiency, you find that the deficiency likely could be resolved by the individual altering their diet. What is the logical next step?




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