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    Catecholamines
    The catecholamines—primarily epinephrine, but also norepinephrine and dopamine—are secreted by the adrenal medulla and are important for the acute expression of strength and power because the hormones act as central motor stimulators and peripheral vascular dilators to enhance enzyme systems and calcium release in muscle.
    Resistance Training Adaptations: Skeletal Changes
    Bone tissue is “alive” and is a dynamic tissue that can respond to resistance training. In addition to the obvious effects of resistance training on muscle mass and strength, resistance training may lead to decreased risk for osteoporosis, fractures, and falls in later life.
    Tests Based on Work Demands and Training Status
    Fitness testing uses a battery of protocols recognized by the scientific community as both reliable and valid, and it measures important fitness constructs such as aerobic endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, power, agility, flexibility, and balance.
    Power Clean
    The power clean is similar to the power snatch but with two major differences. Firstly, the final bar position is at the shoulders, not over the head, and secondly, the grip is approximately shoulder-width apart, whereas the snatch has a considerably wider grip.
    Neural Contributions to Muscle Growth
    Neural adaptations help mediate growth-related processes and the early increase in strength is attributable mainly to improved neural function. Along with neural changes, various aspects of the protein metabolism in the muscle are changing in the early phases of training.
    Functional and Nonfunctional Overreaching and Overtraining
    If manipulation of the training variables is not tailored correctly to the desired adaptations and specific training goals, an athlete can experience symptoms of nonfunctional overreach. If this process continues, the athlete can develop overtraining syndrome.
    Anatomical Core – Neural Integration
    Isolated muscle training methods do not necessarily transfer to better sports performance, because technique as well as strength contributes to successful performance. Resistance training for dynamic sports must involve ground-based movements that incorporate the coordinated stabilizing and dynamic functions of multiple muscles.
    Energy Dynamics During Exercise
    Knowing when to train and how much time to devote to training each of the three energy systems is an important ingredient of success in endurance sports. This knowledge is also reflected in a well-designed and scientifically-based training plan.
    Acceleration vs. Maximum Speed
    Acceleration and maximum speed are terms used in speed development programs, and when developing a program, it is vital to differentiate between the two. This allows coaches to target their training to the capacity most important in their own sport.
    Measurement of Power
    It is important for coaches to understand the relationship between commonly measured variables (e.g., displacement, velocity, and force) and their relationship to the derived variable of power.