by Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning-4th Edition With Web Resource
Kinetic Select May 2017
The following is an exclusive excerpt from the book Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning - 4th Edition with Web Resource, part of the NSCA’s Science of Strength and Conditioning Series with Human Kinetics. All text and images provided by Human Kinetics.
The program design variables and the various types of aerobic endurance training are often applied to athletes’ sport seasons to create a yearly training program. Typically, the training year is divided into phases that include the off-season (sometimes called base training), preseason, in-season (sport competition), and postseason (active rest). Table 20.5 summarizes the main objectives and the typical program design assignments for each training season.
Off-Season (Base Training)
The priority in off-season training is to develop a base of cardiorespiratory fitness. Initially, the training program should be composed of long-duration and low-intensity workouts. As the off-season continues, intensity and, to a lesser extent, duration are increased; however, the increase in training duration should not be more than 5% to 10% per week (87). Increasing the training duration too much can actually lead to decreases in aerobic endurance performance (18). Periodic increases in exercise intensity occur when an athlete has adapted to the training stimulus and requires additional overload for continued improvements.
During the preseason, the athlete should focus on increasing intensity, maintaining or reducing duration, and incorporating all types of training into the program. The strengths and weaknesses of the individual athlete should determine the amount and frequency of each type of training.
The in-season training program needs to be designed to include competition or race days in the training schedule. Low-intensity and short-duration training days should precede scheduled competitions so that the athlete is fully recovered and rested. The types of training employed during the in-season are based on the continued goal of improving weaknesses and maintaining strengths of the athlete.
Postseason (Active Rest)
During the postseason, the main focus should be on recovering from the previous competitive season. Low training duration and intensity are typical for this active rest phase, but enough overall exercise or activity should be performed to maintain a sufficient level of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and lean body mass. During the postseason, the aerobic endurance athlete should focus on rehabilitating injuries incurred during the competitive season and improving the strength of weak or underconditioned muscle groups.
▶ A sound year-round aerobic endurance training program should be divided into sport seasons with specific goals and objectives designed to improve performance gradually and progressively.
Developed by the National Strength and Conditioning Association, Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, Fourth Edition, is the fundamental preparation text for the CSCS exam as well as a definitive reference that strength and conditioning professionals will consult in everyday practice. The book is available in bookstores everywhere, as well as online at theNSCA Store.