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Notice: The NSCA website is scheduled to undergo system maintenance from 12:00 AM - 2:30 AM EST. During this time, there may be short service interruptions across the site and some parts of the site may not be accessible. We apologize for any inconvenience while we work to improve the website experience and security.

Carbohydrate Periodization—Part 2: Time Carbohydrate Restriction

by Mike Nelson
Personal Training Quarterly August 2019
Vol 6, Issue 2

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Available to:
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Audience:
Personal trainers
Topics:
Nutrition

This is the second part of a two-part series that investigates the effects of dietary carbohydrate availability on exercise performance and how specifically timed restriction of carbohydrates may also paradoxically enhance exercise performance in the medium and long term.

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This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »

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References

1. Bartlett JD, Hawley JA, and Morton JP. Carbohydrate availability and exercise training adaptation: too much of a good thing? European Journal of Sport Science 15(1): 3-12, 2015.

2. Beelen M, Cermak NM, and van Loon LJ. Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 159: A7465, 2015.

3. Bergstrom J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, and Saltin B. Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 71(2): 140-150, 1967.

4. Burke, LM, Ross, ML, Garvican-Lewis, LA, Welvaert, M, Heikura, IA, Forbes, SG, et al. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers. The Journal of Physiology 595(9): 2785-2807, 2017.

5. Gejl, KD, Thams, LB, Hansen, M, Rokkedal-Lausch, T, Plomgaard, P, Nybo, L, et al. No superior adaptations to carbohydrate periodization in elite endurance athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 49(12): 2486-2497, 2017.

6. Hansen, AK, Fischer, CP, Plomgaard, P, Andersen, JL, Saltin, B, and Pedersen, BK. Skeletal muscle adaptation: Training twice every second day vs. training once daily. Journal of Applied Physiology 98(1): 93-99, 2005.

7. Hawley, JA, and Leckey, JJ. Carbohydrate dependence during prolonged, intense endurance exercise. Sports Medicine 45(Suppl 1): S5-12, 2015.

8. Hermansen, L, Hultman, E, and Saltin, B. Muscle glycogen during prolonged severe exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 71(2): 129-139, 1967.

9. Impey, SG, Hearris, MA, Hammond, KM, Bartlett, JD, Louis, J, Close, GL, et al. Fuel for the work required: A theoretical framework for carbohydrate periodization and the glycogen threshold hypothesis. Sports Medicine 48(5): 1031-1048, 2018.

10. Jeukendrup, AE. Periodized nutrition for athletes. Sports Medicine 47(Suppl 1): 51-63, 2017.

11. Marquet, LA, Brisswalter, J, Louis, J, Tiollier, E, Burke, LM, Hawley, JA, et al. Enhanced endurance performance by periodization of carbohydrate intake: “Sleep low” strategy. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 48(4): 663-672, 2016.

12. Morton, JP, Croft, L, Bartlett, JD, Maclaren, DP, Reilly, T, Evans, L, et al. Reduced carbohydrate availability does not modulate training-induced heat shock protein adaptations but does upregulate oxidative enzyme activity in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 106(5): 1513-1521, 2009.

13. Pochmuller, M, Schwingshackl, L, Colombani, PC, and Hoffmann, G. A systematic review and meta-analysis of carbohydrate benefits associated with randomized controlled competition-based performance trials. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 13: 27, 2016.

14. Sherman, WM, Costill, DL, Fink, WJ, and Miller, JM. Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance. International Journal Sports Medicine 2(2): 114-118, 1981.

15. Stellingwerff, T, and Cox, GR. Systematic review: Carbohydrate supplementation on exercise performance or capacity of varying durations. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 39(9): 998-1011, 2014.

16. van Loon, LJ, Greenhaff, PL, Constantin-Teodosiu, D, Saris, WH, and Wagenmakers, AJ. The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans. The Journal of Physiology 536(Pt 1): 295-304, 2001.

17. Williams, C, and Rollo, I. Carbohydrate nutrition and team sport performance. Sports Medicine 45(Suppl 1): S13-22, 2015.

18. Yeo, WK, Paton, CD, Garnham, AP, Burke, LM, Carey, AL, and Hawley, JA. Skeletal muscle adaptation and performance responses to once a day versus twice every second day endurance training regimens. Journal of Applied Physiology 105(5): 1462-1470, 2008.

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Michael A. Nelson

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Mike Nelson has spent 20 years of his life learning how the human body works, specifically focusing on how to increase the use of both fats and carboh ...

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Available to:
Members only
Audience:
Personal trainers
Topics:
Nutrition
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