Cross Education with the Post-Rehabilitation Process

by Brianna Simmons, Jazmine Woods, and Ronald L. Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT
Personal Training Quarterly December 2020
Vol 7, Issue 3

Share:

During the rehabilitation process, a client may need therapy outside of the personal trainer’s scope of practice. This article discusses safe and effective modalities that personal trainers can use with clients in the post-rehabilitation phase process.

Paywall block issue

This article is not configured properly for members or paid content.
isMemberOnly: {{isMemberOnly}} | isPaidContent: {{isPaidContent}}
spc: One or more parts of the product SPC is missing.

Read the full article

View the video

Login to view more


{{discountDesc}} Valid thru {{discountEnds}}

This {{ogType == 'video.other' ? 'video':'article'}} is available with a NSCA membership

This {{ogType == 'video.other' ? 'video':'article'}} can be purchased for {{prices}}
Price includes membership pricing and promotions

Purchase this {{ogType == 'video.other' ? 'video':'article'}}. Price range: {{prices}}
Price range includes membership pricing and promotions

Become a Member Add to Cart Login

This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »

Related Reading

Share:

References

1. Anson, M, Halpern, A, and Clarkson, P. Pulsed eccentric loading effects on cross-education. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25(5): 164, 1993.

2. Barss, T, Pearcey, G, and Zehr, E. Focus: The aging brain: Cross-education of strength and skill: an old idea with applications in the aging nervous system. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 89(1): 81-86, 2016.

3. Bedford, F. A perception theory of mind-body medicine: Guided imagery and mindful meditation as cross-modal adaptation. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 19(1): 24-45, 2012.

4. Cabric, M, and Appell, H. Effect of electrical stimulation of high and low frequency on maximum isometric force and some morphological characteristics in men. International Journal of Sports Medicine 8(4): 256-260, 1987.

5. Cannon, R, and Cafarelli, E. Neuromuscular adaptations to training. Journal of Applied Physiology 63(6): 2396-2402, 1987.

6. Carolan, B, and Cafarelli, E. Adaptations in coactivation after isometric resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology 73(3): 911-917, 1992.

7. Davies, C, Dooley, P, McDonagh, M, and White, M. Adaptation of mechanical properties of muscle to high force training in man. The Journal of Physiology 365(1): 277-284, 1985.

8. Delitto, A, and Snyder-Mackler, L. Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Physical Therapy 70(3): 158-164, 1990.

9. Devine, K, LeVeau, B, and Yack, H. Electromyographic activity recorded from an unexercised muscle during maximal isometric exercise of the contralateral agonists and antagonists. Physical Therapy 61(6): 898-903, 1981.

10. Dragert K, and Zehr P. High-intensity unilateral dorsiflexor resistance training results in bilateral neuromuscular plasticity after stroke. Experimental Brain Research 225(1): 93-104, 2013.

11. Duchateau, J, and Hainaut, K. Training effect of sub-maximal electrostimulation in a human. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 20(1): 99-104, 1988.

12. Ehrensberger, M, Simpson, D, Broderick, P, and Monaghan, K. Cross education of strength has a positive impact on post-stroke rehabilitation: A systematic literature review. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 23(2): 126-135, 2016.

13. Hamzei, F, Lappchen, C, Glauche, V, Mader, I, Rijntjes, M, and Weiller, C. Functional plasticity induced by mirror training: The mirror as the element connecting both hands to one hemisphere. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 26(5): 484-496, 2012.

14. Hendy, A, Spittle, M, and Kidgell, D. Cross education and immobilization: mechanisms and implications for injury rehabilitation. Journal of Science Medicine in Sport 15(2): 94-101, 2012.

15. Hortobagyi, T. Cross education and the human central nervous system. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 24(1): 22-28, 2005.

16. Howatson, G, Zult, T, Farthing, J, Zijdewind, I, and Hortobagyi, T. Mirror training to augment cross-education during resistance training: a hypothesis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7: 396, 2013

17. Kim, C, Lee, J, Kim, H, and Kim, J. The effect of progressive task-oriented training on a supplementary tilt table on lower extremity muscle strength and gait recovery in patients with hemiplegic stroke. Gait and Posture 41(2): 425-430, 2014.

18. Leigh, J, Macaskill, P, Kuosma E, and Mandryk, J. Global burden of disease and injury due to occupational factors. Epidemiology-Baltimore 10(5): 626-631, 1999.

19. Ramachandran, V, Rogers-Ramachandran, D, and Cobb, S. Touching the phantom limb. Nature 377(6549): 489-490, 1995.

20. Sattin, R, Huber, D, Devito, C, Rodriguez, J, Ros, A, Bacchelli, S, Stevens, J, and Waxweiler, R. The incidence of fall injury events among the elderly in a defined population. American Journal Epidemiology 131(6):1028-1037, 1990.

21. Shima, N, Ishida, K, Katayama, K, Morotome, Y, Sato, Y, and Miyamura, M. Cross education of muscular strength during unilateral resistance training and detraining. European Journal of Applied Physiology 86(4): 287-294, 2002.

22. Stevenson, M, Finch, C, Hamer, P, and Elliott, B. The Western Australian sports injury study. British Journal Sports Medicine 37(5): 380-381, 2003.

23. Sutbeyaz, S, Yavuzer, G, and Sezer, N. Mirror therapy enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning after stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 88(5): 555-559, 2007.

24. Toca-Herrera, J, Gallach, J, Gomis, M, and Gonzales, L. Cross education after one session of unilateral surface electrical stimulation of the rectus femoris. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 22(2): 614-618, 2008.

25. Zhou, S. Chronic neural adaptations to unilateral exercise: Mechanisms of cross education. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 28(4): 177-184, 2000.

About the author

Brianna Simmons

Contact Brianna Simmons

Contact Brianna Simmons

Your first name is required.
Your last name is required.
Your email is required.
Your message is required.
Your reCaptcha is required.

Your email was successfully sent to Brianna Simmons

Brianna Simmons is a first-year master’s student at Georgia Southern University, studying exercise science.

View full biography
About the author

Jazmine Woods

Contact Jazmine Woods

Contact Jazmine Woods

Your first name is required.
Your last name is required.
Your email is required.
Your message is required.
Your reCaptcha is required.

Your email was successfully sent to Jazmine Woods

Jazmine Woods is a first-year master’s student at Georgia Southern University, studying exercise science.

View full biography
Photo of Ronald L. Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*D, TSAC-F,*D
About the author

Ronald L. Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*D, TSAC-F,*D

RSnarrFitness
Contact Ronald Snarr

Contact Ronald Snarr

Your first name is required.
Your last name is required.
Your email is required.
Your message is required.
Your reCaptcha is required.

Your email was successfully sent to Ronald Snarr

Ronald Snarr is an Assistant Professor and Human Performance Lab Director at Georgia Southern University. He holds a PhD in Exercise Physiology/Huma ...

View full biography
#everyonestronger #everyonestronger

has been added to your shopping cart!

Continue Shopping Checkout Now