Evidence-Based Practice in Personal Training – Understanding the Meaningfulness of Research Findings

by Grayson Elmore, CSCS
Personal Training Quarterly December 2021
Vol 8, Issue 3


The purpose of this article is to provide personal trainers reading the strength and conditioning research the knowledge necessary to better understand the statistical data commonly reported in research manuscripts.

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This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »

Related Reading



1. English, KL, Amonette, WE, Graham, M, and Spiering, BA. What is “evidence-based” strength and conditioning? Strength and Conditioning Journal 34(3): 19-24, 2012.

2. Gliner, JA, Vaske, JJ, and Morgan, GA. Null hypothesis significance testing: Effect size matters. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 6(4): 291-301, 2001.

3. Jeffreys, I. Evidence-based practice in strength and conditioning – Reality or fantasy? Professional Strength and Conditioning 39: 7-14, 2015.

4. Lininger, M, and Riemann, BL. Statistical primer for athletic trainers: Using confidence intervals and effect sizes to evaluate clinical meaningfulness. Journal of Athletic Training 51(12): 1045-1048, 2016.

5. Page, P. Beyond statistical significance: Clinical interpretation of rehabilitation research literature. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 9(5): 726-736, 2014.

6. Riemann, BL, and Lininger, M. Statistical primer for athletic trainers: The difference between statistical and clinical meaningfulness. Journal of Athletic Training 50(12): 1223-1225, 2015.

7. Silva-Aycaguer, L, Suarez-Gil, P, and Fernández-Somoano, A. The null hypothesis significance test in health sciences research (1995-2006): Statistical analysis and interpretation. BMC Medical Research Methodology 10: 44, 2010.

8. Sullivan, GM, and Fienn, R. Using effect size — or why the p value is not enough. Journal of Graduate Medical Education 4(3): 279-282, 2012.

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Grayson Elmore, CSCS

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Grayson Elmore is an Assistant Professor of Health and Human Performance at Austin Peay State University. Elmore teaches strength and conditioning and ...

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