The Importance of Creatine Timing for Muscle Size and Strength

by Adam Gonzalez, PHD, CISSN, CSCS,*D and Guillermo Escalante, DSC, MBA, ATC, CSCS,*D, FISSN
Personal Training Quarterly September 2023
Vol 10, Issue 2

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Topics:
Nutrition

This article provides a discussion around the evidence on creatine timing and supplementation.

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This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »

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References

  1. Antonio, J, and Ciccone V. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 10: 36, 2013.
  2. Brosnan, ME, and Brosnan JT. The role of dietary creatine. Amino Acids 48: 1785-1791, 2016.
  3. Candow, DG, Forbes, SC, Roberts, MD, Roy, BD, Antonio, J, Smith-Ryan, AE, et al. Creatine o’clock: Does timing of ingestion really influence muscle mass and performance? Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 181, 2022.
  4. Candow, DG, Vogt, E, Johannsmeyer, S, Forbes, SC, and Farthing, JP. Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 40: 689-694, 2015.
  5. Candow, DG, Zello, GA, Ling, B, Farthing, JP, Chilibeck, PD, McLeod, K, et al. Comparison of creatine supplementation before versus after supervised resistance training in healthy older adults. Research in Sports Medicine 22: 61-74, 2014.
  6. Cribb, PJ, and Hayes, A. Effects of supplement-timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 38: 1918-1925, 2006.
  7. Dinan, NE, Hagele, A, Jagim, AR, Miller, MG, and Kerksick, CM. Effects of creatine monohydrate timing on resistance training adaptations and body composition after 8 weeks in male and female collegiate athletes. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 4: 2022.
  8. Escalante, G, Gonzalez, AM, St Mart, D, Torres, M, Echols, J, Islas, M, and Schoenfeld, BJ. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and cost of alternative forms of creatine available for purchase on Amazon.com: Are label claims supported by science? Heliyon 8: e12113, 2022.
  9. Forbes, SC, Krentz, JR, and Candow, DG. Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: A within-subject design. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 61: 1219-1225, 2021.
  10. Green, A, Hultman, E, Macdonald, I, Sewell, DA, and Greenhaff, P. Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism 271: E821-E826, 1996.
  11. Green, A, Simpson, E, Littlewood, J, Macdonald, I, and Greenhaff, P. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 158: 195-202, 1996.
  12. Greenwood, M, Kreider, R, Earnest, C, Rasmussen, C, and Almada, A. Differenes in creatine retention among three nutritional formulations of oral creatine supplements. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 6: 2003.
  13. Harris, RC, Söderlund, K, and Hultman, E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clinical Science 83: 367-374, 1992.
  14. Kaviani, M, Shaw, K, and Chilibeck, PD. Benefits of creatine supplementation for vegetarians compared to omnivorous athletes: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17: 3041, 2020.
  15. Kreider, RB, Kalman, DS, Antonio, J, Ziegenfuss, TN, Wildman, R, Collins, R, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14: 18, 2017.
  16. Kreider, RB, and Stout, JR. Creatine in health and disease. Nutrients 13: 447, 2021.
  17. Lu, Y, and Freeland, S. On the evolution of the standard amino-acid alphabet. Genome Biology 7: 1-6, 2006.
  18. Ostojic, SM. Creatine as a food supplement for the general population. Journal of Functional Foods 83: 104568, 2021.
  19. Pittas, G, Hazell, M, Simpson, E, and Greenhaff, P. Optimization of insulin-mediated creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Journal of sports Sciences 28: 67-74, 2010.
  20. Ribeiro, F, Longobardi, I, Perim, P, Duarte, B, Ferreira, P, Gualano, B, Roschel, H, and Saunders, B. Timing of creatine supplementation around exercise: A real concern? Nutrients 13: 2844, 2021.
  21. Robinson, TM, Sewell, DA, Hultman, E, and Greenhaff, PL. Role of submaximal exercise in promoting creatine and glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 87: 598-604, 1999.
  22. Steenge, G, Lambourne, J, Casey, A, Macdonald, I, and Greenhaff, P. Stimulatory effect of insulin on creatine accumulation in human skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology- Endocrinology and Metabolism 275: E974-E979, 1998.
  23. Steenge, G, Simpson, E, and Greenhaff, P. Protein-and carbohydrate-induced augmentation of whole body creatine retention in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 89: 1165-1171, 2000.
About the author

Adam Michael Gonzalez, PhD, CSC

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Adam Gonzalez is an Associate Professor in the Department of Allied Health and Kinesiology at Hofstra University. He earned a PhD in Exercise Physiolo ...

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About the author

Guillermo Escalante, DSC, MBA, ATC, CSC

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Guillermo Escalante is currently a Professor of Kinesiology and Assistant Dean for the College of Natural Sciences at California State University, San ...

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Available to:
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Audience:
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Topics:
Nutrition
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