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The Prevalence of Muscle Dysmorphia in Adolescents and What to Look For

by Nicholas Maruca, CSCS
Personal Training Quarterly March 2015
Vol 3, Issue 2

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This article discusses what muscle dysmorphia is, the ways in which adolescents can fall victim to it, and how to intervene when body image becomes distorted.

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This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »

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References

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2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
3. Anderdon, A, Cohn, L, and Holbrook, T. Making Weight: Men’s Conflicts with Food, Weight, and Shape. Carlsbad, CA: Gurze Books; 2000.
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10. Irving, LM, Wall, M, Neumark-Sztainer, D, and Story, M. Steroid use among adolescents: Findings from project EAT. Journal of Adolescent Health 30(4): 243-252, 2002.
11. Keel, PK, Klump, KL, Leon, GR, and Fulkerson, JA. Disordered eating in adolescent males from a school-based sample. The International Journal of Eating Disorders 23(2): 125-132, 1998.
12. Kindlundh, AMS, Hagekull, B, Isacon, DGL, and Nyberg, F. Adolescent use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and relations to self-report of social, personality, and health aspects. European Journal of Public Health 11(3): 322-328, 2001.
13. Leone, JE, Sedory, EJ, and Gray, KA. Recognition and treatment of muscle dysmorphia and related body image disorders. Journal of Athletic Training 40(4): 352-359, 2005.
14. Murray, SB, and Baghurst, T. Revisiting the diagnostic criteria for muscle dysmorphia. Strength and Conditioning Journal 33(1): 69-74, 2013.
15. Olivardia, R, Pope, HG, and Hudson, JI. Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters: A case-control study. American Journal of Psychiatry 157(8): 1291-1296, 2000.
16. Pope, HG, Gruber, AJ, Choi, P, Olivardia, R, and Phillips, KA. Muscle dysmorphia: An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics 38(6): 548-557, 1997.
17. Pope, HG, Phillips, KA, and Oliviardia, R. The Adonis Complex: The Secret Crisis of Male Body Image Obsession. New York, NY: Free Press; 2000.
18. Pope, CG, Pope, HG, Menard, W, Fay, C, Olivardia, R, and Phillips, KA. Clinical features of muscle dysmorphia among males with body image disorder. Body Image 2(4): 395-400, 2005.
19. Stout, EJ, and Frame, MW. Body image disorder in adolescent males: Strategies for school counselors. Professional School Counseling 8(2): 176, 2004.

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MR Nicholas Maruca, CSCS

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Nick Maruca is a graduate of Temple University with a degree in kinesiology. He has extensive knowledge in bodyweight and alternative methods of train...

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