by Craig Weller
TSAC Report April 2014
Vol 41, Issue 1
This article originally appeared in TSAC Report, the NSCA’s quarterly, online-only publication geared toward the training of tactical athletes, operators, and facilitators. It provides research-based articles, performance drills, and conditioning techniques for operational, tactical athletes. The TSAC Report is only available for NSCA Members. Read more articles from TSAC Report
1. Alessandro, R, Gerardo, B, Alessandra, L, Lorenzo, C, Andrea, P, Keith, G, et al. Effects of twenty days of the ketogenic diet on metabolic and respiratory parameters in healthy subjects. Lung 193(6): 939-945, 2015.
2. Alirezaei, M, Kemball, CC, Flynn, CT, Wood, MR, Whitton, JL, and Kiosses, WB. Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Autophagy 6(6): 702-710, 2010.
3. Antonio, R, Johnston, K, Collins, A, and Robertson, MD. The effects of intermittent energy restriction on indices of cardiometabolic health. Research in Endocrinology 1-23, 2014.
4. Ashby, WR. An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 127-131, 1956.
5. Baranano, KW, and Hartman, AL. The ketogenic diet: Uses in epilepsy and other neurologic illnesses. Current Treatment Options in Neurology 10(6): 410-419, 2008.
6. Barnosky, AR, Hoddy, KK, Unterman, TG, and Varady, KA. Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: A review of human findings. Translational Research 164(4): 302-311, 2014.
7. Battaglia, GM, Zheng, D, Hickner, RC, and Houmard, JA. Effect of exercise training on metabolic flexibility in response to a high-fat diet in obese individuals. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism 303(12): E1440–E1445, 2012.
8. Bogdanis, GC, Nevill, ME, Boobis, LH, and Lakomy, HK. Contribution of phosphocreatine and aerobic metabolism to energy supply during repeated sprint exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 80(3): 876-884, 1996.
9. Bogdanis, GC, Nevill, ME, Lakomy, HK, and Boobis, LH. Power output and muscle metabolism during and following recovery from 10 and 20 s of maximal sprint exercise in humans. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica163(3): 261-272, 1998.
10. Boyle, KE, Canham, JP, Consitt, LA, Zheng, D, Koves, TR, Gavin, TP, and Houmard, JA. A high-fat diet elicits differential responses in genes coordinating oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of lean and obese individuals. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 96(3): 775-781, 2011.
11. Burke, L, and Hawley, J. Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling muscle from trained humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 89: 2413-2421, 2000.
12. Burke, LM, and Hawley, J. Effects of short-term fat adaptation on metabolism and performance of prolonged exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 34(9): 1492-1498, 2002.
13. Burke, LM, Angus, DJ, Cox, GR, Cummings, NK, Febbraio, MA, Gawthorn, K, et al. Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology 89(6): 2413-2421, 2000.
14. Callow, M, Morton, A, and Guppy, M. Marathon fatigue: The role of plasma fatty acids, muscle glycogen and blood glucose. European Journal of Applied Physiology 55(6): 654-661, 1986.
15. Carey, AL, Staudacher, HM, Cummings, NK, Stepto, NK, Nikolopoulos V, Burke, LM, and Hawley, JA. Effects of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on prolonged endurance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology91(1): 115-122, 2001.
16. Chan, S. Complex adaptive systems. ESD.83 Research Seminar in Engineering Systems. 2001. Retrieved 2016 from http://web.mit. edu/esd.83/www/notebook/Complex%20Adaptive%20Systems. pdf.
17. Cheng, CW, Adams, GB, Perin, L, Wei, M, Zhou, X, Lam, BS, et al. Prolonged fasting reduces IGF-1/PKA to promote hematopoietic-stem-cell- based regeneration and reverse immunosuppression. Cell Stem Cell 14(6): 810-823, 2014.
18. Claassen, A, Lambert, EV, Bosch, AN, Rodger, LM, St Clair Gibson, A, and Noakes, TD. Variability in exercise capacity and metabolic response during endurance exercise after a low carbohydrate diet. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 15(2): 97-116, 2005.
19. Feltz, DL, and Lirgg, CD. Self-efficacy beliefs of athletes, teams, and coaches. 2001. Retrieved 2016 from https://www. researchgate.net/publication/228781578_Self-efficacy_beliefs_of_ athletes_teams_and_coaches.
20. Galgani, JE, Moro, C, and Ravussin, E. Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism 295(5): E1009-1017, 2008.
21. Gasior, M., Rogawski, MA, and Hartman, AL. Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behavioural Pharmacology 17(5-6): 431-439, 2006.
22. Gell-Mann, M. Complex adaptive systems. Santa Fe Institute. 1994. Retrieved 2016 from http://tuvalu.santafe.edu/~mgm/Site/ Publications_files/MGM%20113.pdf.
23. Goedecke, J, and Lambert, E. Adaptation to a high-fat diet for endurance exercise: Review of potential underlying mechanisms. International Journal of Sports Medicine 4(6): 1-11, 2003.
24. Goto, K, Ishii, N, Mizuno, A, and Takamatsu, K. Enhancement of fat metabolism by repeated bouts of moderate endurance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 102(6): 2158-2164, 2007.
25. Halberg, N, Henriksen, M, Soderhamn, N, Stallknecht, B, Ploug, T, Schjerling, P, and Dela, F. Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men. Journal of Applied Physiology 99(6): 2128-2136, 2005.
26. Havemann, L. Nutritional strategies for endurance and ultraendurance cycling. UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. 2008. Retrieved 2016 from http://uctscholar. uct.ac.za/PDF/91334_Havemam_L.pdf.
27. Hawley, JA, and Burke, LM. Carbohydrate availability and training adaptation: Effects on cell metabolism. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 38(4): 152-160, 2010.
28. Hawley, JA, and Hopkins, WG. Aerobic glycolytic and aerobic lipolytic power systems. Sports Medicine 19(4): 240-250, 1995.
29. Heilbronn, LK, Smith, SR, Martin, CK, Anton, SD, and Ravussin, E. Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: Effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81(1): 69-73, 2005.
30. Helge, J. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise 34(9): 1499-1504, 2002.
31. Houston, M. Fat adaptation followed by carbohydrate loading compromises high-intensity sprint performance. Journal of Applied Physiology 100(1): 194-202, 2006.
32. Issurin, V. Block Periodization 2: Fundamental Concepts and Training Design. Ultimate Athletic Concepts; 2008.
33. Katz, DL, and Meller, S. Can we say what diet is best for health? Annual Review of Public Health 35: 83-103, 2014.
34. Kelley, DE, and Mandarino, LJ. Fuel selection in human skeletal muscle in insulin resistance: A reexamination. Diabetes 49(5): 677- 683, 2000.
35. Kelley, DE, Goodpaster, B, Wing, RR, and Simoneau, JA. Skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism in association with insulin resistance, obesity, and weight loss. The American Journal of Physiology 277: E1130-1141, 1999.
36. Kelley, DE. Skeletal muscle fat oxidation: Timing and flexibility are everything. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 115(7): 1699- 1702, 2005.
37. Lambert, EV, Speechly, DP, Dennis, SC, Science, S, Town, C, and Africa, S. Enhanced endurance in trained cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high fat diet. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 69(4): 287-293, 1994.
38. Longo, VD, and Mattson, MP. Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications. Cell Metabolism19(2): 181-192, 2015.
39. Mattson, MP, Allison, DB, Fontana, L, Harvie, M, Longo, VD, Malaisse, WJ, et al. (2014). Meal frequency and timing in health and disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(47): 16647-16653, 2014.
40. McClelland, GB. Fat to the fire: The regulation of lipid oxidation with exercise and environmental stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 139(3): 443-460, 2004.
41. Meadows, D. Leverage points: Places to intervene in a system. Sustainability Institute. 1999. Retrieved 2016 from http:// donellameadows.org/archives/leverage-points-places-tointervene- in-a-system/.
42. Monteiro, JP, Kussmann, M, and Kaput, J. The genomics of micronutrient requirements. Genes and Nutrition 10(4): 1-10, 2015.
43. Morgan, CA, Aikins, DE, Steffian, G, Coric, V, and Southwick, S. Relation between cardiac vagal tone and performance in male military personnel exposed to high stress: Three prospective studies. Psychophysiology 44(1): 120-127, 2007.
44. Morgan, CA, Cho, T, Hazlett, G, Coric, V, and Morgan, J. The impact of burnout on human physiology and on operational performance: A prospective study of soldiers enrolled in the combat diver qualification course. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 75(4): 199-205, 2002.
45. Morgan, CA, O’Donnel, A, Jovanov, E, Andrasik, F, Prevost, M, and Blower, D. (2003). The warfighter’s stress response: Telemetric and noninvasive assessment. U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. Fort Detrick, MD. 2002. Retrieved 2016 from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a416090.pdf.
46. Muoio, DM, Leddy, J, Horvath, P, Awad, A, and Pendergast, D. Effect of dietary fat on metabolic adjustments to maximal VO2 and endurance in runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26(1): 81-88, 1994.
47. Osinga, FPB. Science, Strategy, and War: The Strategic Theory of John Boyd. Routledge; 73-74, 2006.
48. Paoli, A, Grimaldi, K, D’Agostino, D, Cenci, L, Moro, T, Bianco, A, and Palma, A. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition9(1): 34, 2012.
49. Phinney, SD, Bistrian, BR, Evans, WJ, Gervino, E, and Blackburn, GL. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: Preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism 32(8): 769-776, 1983.
50. Phinney, SD. Ketogenic diets and physical performance. Nutrition & Metabolism 1(1): 2, 2004.
51. Stellingwerff, T, Spriet, LL, Watt, MJ, Kimber, NE, Hargreaves, M, Hawley, JA, and Burke, LM. Decreased PDH activation and glycogenolysis during exercise following fat adaptation with carbohydrate restoration. American Journal of Physiology- Endocrinology and Metabolism 290(2): E380-388, 2006.
52. Stote, KS, Baer, DJ, Spears, K, Paul, DR, Harris, GK, Rumpler, WV, et al. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85(4): 981-988, 2007.
53. Taylor, MK, Gould, DR, Adams, BD, Potterat, EG, Evans, KE, and Markham, AE. Age-matched comparison of elite and non-elite military performers during free living and intense operational stress. Naval Health Research Center. 2009. Retrieved 2016 from file:///C:/Users/curban/Downloads/ADA499987.pdf.
54. Volek, J, and Phinney, S. The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance. Beyond Obesity, LLC; 2012.
55. Volek, JS, Noakes, T, and Phinney, SD. Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise. European Journal of Sport Science 15(1): 13-20, 2015.
56. Waldrop, MM. Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. Simon and Schuster; 1992.
57. Wijngaarden, MA, Zon, GC, Van Der, Dijk, KW, Van, Pijl, H, and Guigas, B. Effects of prolonged fasting on AMPK signaling, gene expression, and mitochondrial respiratory chain content in skeletal muscle from lean and obese individuals. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 304(9): 1012-1021, 2013.
58. Yeo, WK, Carey, AL, Burke, LM, Spriet, LL, and Hawley, JA. Fat adaptation in well-trained athletes. Applied Physiological, Nutrition, and Metabolism 36(1): 12-22, 2011.
59. Zajac, A, Poprzecki, S, Maszczyk, A, Czuba, M, Michalczyk, M, and Zydek, G. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists. Nutrients 6(7): 2493-2508, 2014.