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Considerations for Squat Depth

October 1, 2021

Article Members Only

The purpose of this article is to compare the effects of quarter, parallel, and full depth squats on muscle activity, joint stress, athletic abilities, and potential injury risks for the consideration of all strength and conditioning professionals.

Coaches Exercise Science Exercise Technique Program design Squat Depth Front Squat Back Squat Countermovement Jump Squat Jump Sprinting

Bridge: Optimizing Squat Technique

May 1, 2015


This video demonstrates coaching cues that can help an athlete to utilize optimal squat technique. It specifically addresses stance width, heel position, head position, and squat depth

Personal trainers TSAC Facilitators Coaches Exercise Technique exercise technique squat exercise squat best way to squat squat technique hs-coaching

SCJ 45.1 A Brief Review on the Effects of the Squat Exercise on Lower-Limb Muscle Hypertrophy

Quiz CATD 0.2

The squat is one of the most widely used exercises in resistance training programs. The aim of this narrative review was to analyze the effect of the squat on lower-limb muscle hypertrophy. Briefly, the available literature indicates that the squat is an effective exercise for inducing hypertrophy of the quadriceps, mainly the vastii, but also the rectus femoris, although to a reduced magnitude. Multiple lines of evidence suggest little to no hamstring hypertrophy from the back squat. Although the gluteus maximus clearly participates mechanically in the back squat, few longitudinal studies exist on the topic. The limited evidence available on this topic suggests deeper squats may be more hypertrophic for the gluteus maximus, and that, squat depth beyond 908 of knee flexion may not provide further hypertrophy of the knee extensors. Despite the popularity of the many squat variations, there are still controversies surrounding their hypertrophic potential for lower-limb musculature. Further studies are needed to investigate the hypertrophic effects of different squat variations, as well as differences in hypertrophy because of squat depth, stance, barbell position, and different squat apparatuses/machines.

Anthropometrical Considerations for Customizing the Squat Pattern

February 25, 2019


Proper form and biomechanical execution of the squat has been a long-debated subject in the fitness and sports performance industries. The following article describes a method to help determine an individual’s preferred squatting foot position, setup, and depth based on their unique hip anthropometrics for smarter, safer, and more optimized squatting.

Personal trainers TSAC Facilitators Coaches Exercise Science Exercise Technique Program design Testing and Evaluation Squat Squat Position Bio-mechanics Squat stance

From the Field – A Closer Look at Squat Variations

September 18, 2020

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This article briefly explains different squat variations, as well as how they differ from a physics and biomechanics standpoint.

Personal trainers Exercise Technique Program design Barbell Back Squat Front Squat Knee Stability Posterior Chain

How to Modify the Back Squat for Lower Back Pain

December 2, 2022

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This article seeks to provide personal trainers with eight brief modifications that clients can benefit from if they suffer from both acute and chronic lower back pain (LBP).

Personal trainers Exercise Technique Program design Low Back Pain Conventional Back Squat Machine Bracing Core Stability

Push Jerk

October 15, 2018


This excerpt from Exercise Technique Manual for Resistance Training, Third Edition goes over the technique and execution in each phase of the push jerk.

Coaches Exercise Technique Push Jerk Weightlifting Olympic Weightlifting Power Development

Client Assessments – Movement Assessment

December 20, 2019

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This article builds upon two other client assessment tools (breathing and posture, as seen in Personal Training Quarterly Issues 5.3 and 6.1, respectively) and discusses ways to assess client movement.

Personal trainers Client Consultation|Assessment FMS Movement Patterns Trunk Stability

Programming the General Population for Optimal Fitness—10 Important Movement Patterns

November 26, 2018

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Developing a program for a general population client requires understanding their movement needs. Expand your training programs by implementing all ten of the major human movement patterns.

Personal trainers Program design Movement Pattern General Population Fitness Programming

Stretch-Shortening Cycle

February 14, 2020


This article briefly reviews the importance of the stretch-shortening cycle in power production.

Personal trainers TSAC Facilitators Coaches Exercise Science Program design Plyometrics Stretch Shortening Cycle Golgi Tendon Organ Power

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