Client Assessments—Breathing

by Daniel Flahie, MSEd, CSCS
Personal Training Quarterly January 2019
Vol 3, Issue 5

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Assessing clients is a vital component of the personal training experience. This article gives an overview of breathing mechanics and how to apply proper breathing exercises into a client’s assessment and program.

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This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »

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References

1. Advait. Pranayama: The Vedic Science of Breath. Lexington, KY: Advait; 2009.

2. Boyd, J, and Swank, N. Back to basics: 3 steps of the initial consultation. Personal Training Quarterly 5(1): 10-12, 2018.

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4. Brown, RP, and Gerbarg, PL. Sudarshan kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part I-Neurophysiologic model. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 11(1): 189-201, 2005.

5. Brown, RP, and Gerbarg, PL. Sudarshan kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part II- Clinical applications and guidelines. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 11(4): 711-717, 2005. 6. Cleveland Clinic. Diaphragmatic breathing. 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2018 from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/9445-diaphragmatic-breathing.

 7. Consolo, K, Fusner, S, and Staib, S. Effects of diaphragmatic breathing on stress levels of nursing students. Teaching and Learning in Nursing 3(2): 67-71, 2008.

 8. Devine, M. Kokoro Yoga. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Griffin; 44-46, 2016.

9. Dhungel, KU, Malhotra, V, Sarkar, D, and Prajapati, R. Effect of alternate nostril breathing exercise on cardiorespiratory functions. Nepal Medical College Journal 10(1): 25-27, 2008.

10. Duvall, S. Two steps to better belly breathing. 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2018 from http://www.coreexercisesolutions.com/belly-breathing/.

11. Jerath, R, Edry, JW, Barnes, VA, and Jerath, V. Physiology of long pranayamic breathing: Neural respiratory elements may provide a mechanism that explains how slow deep breathing shifts the autonomic nervous system. Medical Hypotheses 67(3): 566-571, 2006.

12. Perciavalle, V, Blandini, M, Fecarotta, P, Buscemi, A, Di Corrado, D, Bertolo, L, et al. The role of deep breathing on stress. Neurological Sciences 38(3): 451-458, 2017.

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14. Physiopedia. Muscles of respiration. 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2018 from https://www.physio-pedia.com/Muscles_of_Respiration.

15. Pramanik, T, Pudasaini, B, and Prajapati, R. Immediate effect of a slow pace breathing exercise bhramari pranayama on blood pressure and heart rate. Nepal Medical College Journal 12(3): 154-157, 2010.

16. Russo, MA, Santarelli, DM, and O’Rourke, D. The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human. Breathe 13(4): 298-309, 2017.

17. Sengupta, P. Health impacts of yoga and pranayama: A stateof-the-art review. International Journal of Preventive Medicine 3(7): 444-458, 2012.

18. Seppala, EM, Nitschke, JB, Tudorascu, DL, Hayes, A, Goldstein, MR, Nguyen, DTH, et al. Breathing-based meditation decreases posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in U.S. military veterans: A randomized controlled longitudinal study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 27(4): 397-405, 2014.

19. Taylor, T. Diaphragm. 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2018 from https://www.innerbody.com/image/musc06.html.

20. Tortora, GJ, and Derrickson, B. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. (13th ed.) Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2012.

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Daniel Flahie is currently the Program Director and Assistant Professor of Exercise Science and Health and an Assistant Track and Field Coach at Mount ...

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