Notice: The NSCA website is scheduled to undergo system maintenance from 2:00 AM - 2:30 AM EST. During this time, there may be short service interruptions across the site and some parts of  the site may not be accessible. We apologize for any inconvenience while we work to improve the website experience and security.


Notice: The NSCA website is scheduled to undergo system maintenance from 2:00 AM - 2:30 AM EST. During this time, there may be short service interruptions across the site and some parts of  the site may not be accessible. We apologize for any inconvenience while we work to improve the website experience and security.

Five Dietary Adjustments that Support Personal and Planetary Health

by Ryan Andrews, MS, MA, CSCS, NSCA-CPT
Personal Training Quarterly September 2022
Vol 9, Issue 2


This article emphasizes environmental and nutritional dimensions in which there is enough robust evidence to make meaningful recommendations for sustainable nutrition practices.

Paywall block issue

This article is not configured properly for members or paid content.
isMemberOnly: {{isMemberOnly}} | isPaidContent: {{isPaidContent}}
spc: One or more parts of the product SPC is missing.

Read the full article

View the video

Login to view more

{{discountDesc}} Valid thru {{discountEnds}}

This {{ogType == 'video.other' ? 'video':'article'}} is available with a NSCA membership

This {{ogType == 'video.other' ? 'video':'article'}} can be purchased for {{prices}}
Price includes membership pricing and promotions

Purchase this {{ogType == 'video.other' ? 'video':'article'}}. Price range: {{prices}}
Price range includes membership pricing and promotions

Become a Member Add to Cart Login

This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »



1. Boutros, GH, Landry-Duval, MA, Garzon, M, and Karelis, AD. Is a vegan diet detrimental to endurance and muscle strength? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74(11): 1550-1555, 2020.

2. Clark, MA, Springmann, M, Hill, J, and Tilman, D. Multiple health and environmental impacts of foods. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116(46): 23357–23362, 2019.

3. Clark, M, and Tilman, D. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice. Environmental Research Letters: ERL 12(6): 064016, 2017.

4. Clay, N, Garnett, T, and Lorimer, J. Dairy intensification: Drivers, impacts and alternatives. Ambio 49(1): 35-48, 2020.

5. Cleveland, DA, Gee, Q, Horn, A, Weichert, L, and Blancho, M. How many chickens does it take to make an egg? Animal welfare and environmental benefits of replacing eggs with plant foods at the University of California, and beyond. Agriculture and Human Values 38: 157-174, 2021.

6. Clune, S, Crossin, E, and Verghese, K. Systematic review of greenhouse gas emissions for different fresh food categories. Journal of Cleaner Production 140: 766-783, 2017.

7. Conrad, Z, Niles, MT, Neher, DA, Roy, ED, Tichenor, NE, and Jahns, L. Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability. PloS One 13(4): e0195405, 2018.

8. Craddock, JC, Probst, YC, and Peoples, GE. Vegetarian and omnivorous nutrition - Comparing physical performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 26(3): 212–220, 2016.

9. Di Cesare, M, Ghosh, S, Osendarp, S, and Mozaffarian, D. Global Nutrition Report. 2021. Global nutrition report. Retrieved March 2022 from global-nutrition-report/assessing-progress-towards-the-globalnutrition- targets/.

10. Eisen, MB, and Brown, PO. Rapid global phaseout of animal agriculture has the potential to stabilize greenhouse gas levels for 30 years and offset 68 percent of CO2 emissions this century. PLOS Climate 1(2): e0000010, 2022.

11. Fadnes, LT, Okland, JM, Haaland, OA, and Johansson, KA. Estimating impact of food choices on life expectancy: A modeling study. PLoS Medicine 19(2): e1003889, 2022.

12. FAO. Polluting our soils is polluting our futures. Retrieved March 2022 from en/c/1126974/.

13. FAO. The 10 elements of agroecology guiding the transition to sustainable food and agricultural systems. 2018. Retrieved March 2022 from

14. FAO. Sustainable diets and biodiversity. Directions and solutions for policy, research and action. 2012. Retrieved April 2022 from resources-details/en/c/522860/.

15. Finley, LM, Chappell, J, Thiers, P, and Moore, JR. Does organic farming present greater opportunities for employment and community development than conventional farming? A surveybased investigation in California and Washington. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 42(4): 552-572, 2017.

16. Geyer, R, Jambeck, JR, and Law, KL. Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made. Science Advances 3(7): e1700782, 2017.

17. Global Alliance for the Future of Food. The politics of knowledge: Understanding the evidence for agroecology, regenerative approaches, and indigenous foodways. Global Alliance for the Future of Food. 2021. Retrieved March 2022 from of-Knowledge.pdf.

18. Goldman, S, Aspenson, A, Bhatnagar, P, Martin, R. Essential and in crisis: A review of the public health threats facing farmworkers in the US. Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future. 2021. Retrieved March 2022 from publications/essential-and-crisis-review-public-health-threatsfacing- farmworkers-us.

19. Hawkins, IW, Balsam, AL, and Goldman, R. A survey of Registered Dietitians’ concern and actions regarding climate change in the United States. Frontiers in Nutrition 2(July): 21, 2015.

20. Hemler, EC, and Hu, FB. Plant-based diets for personal, population, and planetary health. Advances in Nutrition 10(Suppl 4): S275-283, 2019.

21. Hevia-Larraín, V, Gualano, B, Longobardi, I, Gil, S, Fernandes, AL, Costa, et al. High-protein plant-based diet versus a proteinmatched omnivorous diet to support resistance training adaptations: A comparison between habitual vegans and omnivores. Sports Medicine 51(6): 1317–1330, 2021.

22. Joint FAO/WHO meeting on pesticide residues. Food safety: Pesticide residue. World Health Organization. 2016. Retrieved March 2022 from item/food-safety-pesticide-residue.

23. Juul, F, Parekh, N, Martinez-Steele, E, Monteiro, CA, and Chang, VW. Ultra-processed food consumption among US adults from 2001 to 2018. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 115(1): 211-221, 2022.

24. Kantor, L, and Blazejczyk, A. Loss-adjusted food availability documentation. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. 2020. Retrieved March 2022 from https://www.ers.usda. gov/data-products/food-availability-per-capita-data-system/lossadjusted- food-availability-documentation/.

25. Kravchenko, J, Rhew, SH, Akushevich, I, Agarwal, P, and Lyerly, HK. Mortality and health outcomes in North Carolina communities located in close proximity to hog concentrated animal feeding operations. North Carolina Medical Journal 79(5): 278-288, 2018.

26. Kremen, C, and Merenlender, AM. Landscapes that work for biodiversity and people. Science 362(6412): eaau6020, 2018.

27. Lichtenstein, AH, Appel, LJ, Vadiveloo, M, Hu, FB, Kris-Etherton, PM, Rebholz, CM, Sacks, FM, et al. 2021 dietary guidance to improve cardiovascular health: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 144(23): e472-e487, 2021.

28. McDonald, D, Hyde, E, Debelius, JW, Morton, JT, Gonzalez, A, Ackerman, G, Aksenov, AA. American gut: An open platform for citizen science microbiome research. American Society for Microbiology 3(3): e00031-18, 2018.

29. McGonigal, K. The Upside of Stress. New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2015.

30. McMahon, J. Eating disorders and disordered eating in sport. In: Lang, M (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of Athlete Welfare. New York, NY: Routledge; 173-180, 2020.

31. Meyer, N, and Reguant-Closa, A. ‘Eat as if you could save the planet and win!’ Sustainability integration into nutrition for exercise and sport. Nutrients 9(4): 412, 2017.

32. Montgomery, DR, Biklé, A, Archuleta, R, Brown, P, and Jordan, J. Soil health and nutrient density: Preliminary comparison of regenerative and conventional farming. PeerJ 10(January): e12848, 2022.

33. Morales-Caselles, C, Viejo, J, Martí, E, González-Fernández, D, Pragnell-Raasch, H, González-Gordillo, JI, et al. An inshore– offshore sorting system revealed from global classification of ocean litter. Nature Sustainability 4(6): 484-493, 2021.

34. Mozaffarian, D. Dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity: A comprehensive review. Circulation 133(2): 187-225, 2016.

35. Poore, J, and Nemecek, T. Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers. Science 360(6392): 987-992, 2018.

36. Project Drawdown. Sector summary: Food, agriculture, and land use. Retrieved March 2022 from sectors/food-agriculture-land-use.

37. Project Drawdown. Sector summary: Reduced food waste. Retrieved March 2022 from reduced-food-waste.

38. Rempelos, L, Wang, J, Barański, M, Watson, A, Volakakis, N, Hoppe, HW, et al. Diet and food type affect urinary pesticide residue excretion profiles in healthy individuals: Results of a randomized controlled dietary intervention trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 115(2): 364-377, 2022.

39. Renard, D, and Tilman, D. National food production stabilized by crop diversity. Nature 571(7764): 257-260, 2019.

40. Rogerson, D. Vegan diets: Practical advice for athletes and exercisers. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 14(September): 36, 2017.

41. Sánchez-Suárez, W, Franks, B, and Torgerson-White, L. From land to water: Taking fish welfare seriously. Animals: An Open Access Journal from MDPI 10(9): 1585, 2020.

42. Scherer, L, Behrens, P, and Tukker, A. Opportunity for a dietary win-win-win in nutrition, environment, and animal welfare. One Earth 1(3): 349-360, 2019.

43. Schwarzer, S. Foresight brief. Alternatives for the use of glyphosate. United Nations Environment Programme. 2018. Retrieved March 2022 from bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/26729/foresight_brief_010. pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

44. Seferidi, P, Scrinis, G, Huybrechts, I, Woods, J, Vineis, P, and Millett, C. The neglected environmental impacts of ultra-processed foods. The Lancet Planetary Health 4(10): e437–438, 2020.

45. Swinburn, BA, Kraak, VI, Allender, S, Atkins, VJ, Baker, PI, Bogard, JR, et al. The global syndemic of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change: The Lancet commission report. The Lancet 393(10173): 791-846, 2019.

46. Thomas, TD, Erdman, KA, and Burke, LM. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics, dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 116(3): 501-528, 2016.

47. Tisler, S, and Christensen, JH. Non-target screening for the identification of migrating compounds from reusable plastic bottles into drinking water. Journal of Hazardous Materials 429(5): 128331, 2022.

48. United Nations Environment Programme. Food waste index report 2021. 2021. Retrieved March 2022 from https://www.unep. org/resources/report/unep-food-waste-index-report-2021.

49. United Nations Environment Programme and International Livestock Research Institute. Preventing the next pandemic: Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission. 2020. Retrieved March 2022 from resources/report/preventing-future-zoonotic-disease-outbreaksprotecting- environment-animals-and.

50. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020- 2025. 9th Edition. 2020. Retrieved March 2022 from https:// Guidelines_for_Americans_2020-2025.pdf.

51. Van Boeckel, TP, Glennon, EE, Chen, D, Gilbert, M, Robinson, TP, Grenfell, BT, et al. Reducing antimicrobial use in food animals. Science 357(6358): 1350-1352, 2017.

52. Vogliano, C, Geagan, K, Chou, S, and Palmer, S. Empowering nutrition professionals to advance sustainable food systems. 2021. Food + Planet. Retrieved March 2022 from https://

53. Wang, L, Steele, EM, Du, M, Pomeranz, JL, O’Connor, LE, Herrick, KA, et al. Trends in consumption of ultraprocessed foods among US youths aged 2-19 years, 1999-2018. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 326(6): 519-530, 2021.

54. Willett, W, Rockström, J, Loken, B, Springmann, M, Lang, T, Vermeulen, S, et al. Food in the anthropocene: The EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems. The Lancet 393(10170): 447-492, 2019.

55. World Cancer Research Fund, and American Institute for Cancer Research. Diet, nutrition, physical activity and cancer: A global perspective. Continuous update project expert report. 2018. Retrieved March 2022 from resources-and-toolkits/.

About the author

Ryan D. Andrews, MS, MA, CSCS, NSCA-CPT

Contact Ryan Andrews

Contact Ryan Andrews

Your first name is required.
Your last name is required.
Your email is required.
Your message is required.
Your reCaptcha is required.

Your email was successfully sent to Ryan Andrews

Ryan Andrews completed his education and training at theUniversity of Northern Colorado, Kent State University, JohnsHopkins Medicine, and Columbia Un ...

View full biography
#NSCAStrong #NSCAStrong

has been added to your shopping cart!

Continue Shopping Checkout Now