Effects and Implementation of Exercise during Pregnancy

by Ronald Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT, Connor Collum, Brianna Simmons, Jazmine Woods, Jordan Adcock, Stephanie Gibson, and Gina Hogan
Personal Training Quarterly April 2021
Vol 7, Issue 4

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This article will briefly discuss physiological and psychological adaptations, as well as review general guidelines for beginning aerobic and resistance training exercise during pregnancy.

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This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »

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References

1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period Committee Number 804. Obstetrics and Gynecology 126: 135-142, 2020.

2. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2018.

3. Anitha, OR, Johncy, S, Bondade, SY, and Thomas, C. Respiratory responses to exercise in pregnancy. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences 3(40): 10127-10134, 2014.

4. Asher, I, Kaplan, B, Modai, I, Neri, A, Valevski, A, and Weizman, A. Mood and hormonal changes during late pregnancy and puerperium. Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology 22(4): 321-325, 1995.

5. Berghella, V and Saccone, G. Exercise in pregnancy! American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 216(4): 335-337, 2017.

6. Boscaglia, N, Skouteris, H, and Wertheim, E. Changes in body image satisfaction during pregnancy: A comparison of high exercising and low exercising women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 43(1): 41-45, 2003.

7. Camporesi, E. Diving and pregnancy. Seminars in Perinatology 20(4): 292-302, 1996.

8. Chandrasekaran, S, Levine, LD, Durnwald, CP, Elovitz, MA, and Srinivas, SK. Excessive weight gain and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the obese patient. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 28(8): 964-968, 2015.

9. Weight gain during pregnancy. 2019, Retrieved November 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/ maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-weight-gain.htm.

10. Edwards, MJ. Hyperthermia and fever during pregnancy. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 76(7): 507-516, 2006.

11. Gallagher, S, and Hackett, P. High-altitude illness. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 22(2): 329-55, 2004.

12. Grisso, J, Main, D, Chiu, G, Synder, E, and Holmes, J. Effects of physical activity and life-style factors on uterine contraction frequency. American Journal of Perinatology 9(05/06): 489-492, 1992.

13. Liu, N, Gou, W, Wang, J, Chen, D, Sun, W, Guo, P, and Zhang, W. Effects of exercise on pregnant women’s quality of life: A systematic review. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 242: 170-177, 2019.

14. Milunsky, A, Ulcickas, M, Rothman, K, Willett, W, Jick, S, and Jick, H. Maternal heat exposure and neural tube defects. Jama 268(7): 882-885, 1992.

15. Mottola, M, Nagpal, T, Bgeginski, R, Davenport, M, Poitra, V, Gray, C, et al. Is supine exercise associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes? A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 53(2): 82-89, 2019.

16. Olson, D, Sikka, RS, Hayman, J, Novak, M, and Stavig, C. Exercise in Pregnancy. Current Sports Medicine Reports 8(3): 147-153, 2009.

17. Orhue, AA, and Otubu, JA. Prolonged labour. Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Medical Students. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books; 439-41, 2006.

18. Ouzounian, JG, and Elkayam, U. Physiological changes during normal pregnancy and delivery. Cardiology Clinics 30(3): 317-329, 2012.

19. Perales, M, Santos-Lozano, A, Ruiz, JR, Lucia, A, and Barakat, R. Benefits of aerobic or resistance training during pregnancy on maternal health and perinatal outcomes: A systematic review. Early Human Development 94: 43-48, 2016.

20. Salvesen, KÅ, Stafne, SN, Eggebø, TM, and Mørkved, S. Does regular exercise in pregnancy influence duration of labor? A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 93(1): 73-79, 2014.

21. Soma-Pillay, P, Catherine, NP, Tolppanen, H, Mebazaa, A, Tolppanen, H, and Mebazaa, A. Physiological changes in pregnancy. 27(2): 89-94, 2016.

Photo of Ronald L. Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*D, TSAC-F,*D
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Ronald L. Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*D, TSAC-F,*D

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Ronald Snarr is an Assistant Professor and Human Performance Lab Director at Georgia Southern University. He holds a PhD in Exercise Physiology/Huma ...

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Connor Collum

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Connor Collum is a recent graduate of the Master’s Exercise Science program at Georgia Southern University.

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Brianna Simmons

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Brianna Simmons is a first-year master’s student at Georgia Southern University, studying exercise science.

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Jazmine Woods

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Jazmine Woods is a first-year master’s student at Georgia Southern University, studying exercise science.

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Gina Hogan

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Gina Hogan is a first-year master’s student at Georgia Southern University, where she works as a research assistant. Hogan received her Bachelor of ...

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