Understanding Inter-Individual Responses to Exercise

by Ronald Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT, Gina Hogan, Jordan Brown, and Maisie Davis
Personal Training Quarterly December 2020
Vol 7, Issue 3

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This article briefly describes how individuals can have the same training program, but have large fluctuations in the adaptation responses due to genetic and life style factors.

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This article originally appeared in Personal Training Quarterly (PTQ)—a quarterly publication for NSCA Members designed specifically for the personal trainer. Discover easy-to-read, research-based articles that take your training knowledge further with Nutrition, Programming, and Personal Business Development columns in each quarterly, electronic issue. Read more articles from PTQ »

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References

1. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2018.

2. An, P, Rice, T, Gagnon, J, Leon, AS, Skinner, JS, Bouchard, C, et al. Familial aggregation of stroke volume and cardiac output during submaximal exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine 21(8): 566-572, 2000.

3. Bateman, LA, Slentz, CA, Willis, LH, Shields, AT, Piner, LW, Bales, CW, et al. Comparison of aerobic versus resistance exercise training effects on metabolic syndrome (from the Studies of a targeted risk reduction intervention through defined exercise-STRRIDE-AT/RT). The American Journal of Cardiology 108(6): 838-844, 2011.

4. Bouchard, C, An, P, Rice, T, Skinner, JS, Wilmore, JH, Gagnon, J, et al. Familial aggregation of VO2max response to exercise training: Results from the HERITAGE Family Study. Journal of Applied Physiology 87(3): 1003-1008, 1999.

5. Bouchard, C, and Rankinen, T. Individual differences in response to regular physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(6): 446-451, 2001.

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7. Davidsen, P, Gallagher, I, Hartman, J, Tarnopolsky, M, Dela, F, Helge, J, et al. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression. Journal of Applied Physiology 110(2): 309-317, 2010.

8. Feitosa, MF, Rice, T, Rosmond, R, Borecki, IB, An, P, Gagnon, J, et al. A genetic study of cortisol measured before and after endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study. Metabolism- Clinical and Experimental 51(3): 360-365, 2002.

9. Fullagar, H, Skorski, S, Duffield, R, Hammes, D, Coutts, A, and Meyer, T. Sleep and athletic performance: The effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Medicine 45(2): 161-186, 2015.

10. Gaskill, SE, Rice, T, Bouchard, C, Gagnon, J, Rao, DC, Skinner, JS, et al. Familial resemblance in ventilatory threshold: The HERITAGE family study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(11): 1832-1840, 2001.

11. Guth, LM, and Roth, SM. Genetic influence on athletic performance. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 25(6): 653-658, 2013.

12. Hammond, BP, Stotz, PJ, Brennan, AM, Lamarche, B, Day, AG, and Ross, R. Individual variability in waist circumference and body weight in response to exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 51(2): 315-322, 2019.

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15. Leon, AS, Gaskill, SE, Rice, T, Bergeron, J, Gagnon, J, Rao, DC, et al. Variability in the response of HDL cholesterol to exercise training in the HERITAGE Family Study. International Journal of Sports Medicine 23(1): 1-9, 2002.

16. Mah, C, Mah, K, Kezirian, E, and Dement, W. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. Sleep 34(7): 943-950, 2011.

17. Mann, T, Lamberts, R, and Lambert, M. High responders and low responders: Factors associated with individual variation in response to standardized training. Sports Medicine 44(8): 1113-1124, 2014.

18. Martin, B.J. Effect of sleep deprivation on tolerance of prolonged exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology 47(4): 345-354. 1981.

19. Mobley, C, Haun, C, Roberson, P, Mumford, P, Kephart, W, Romero, M, et al. Biomarkers associated with low, moderate, and high vastus lateralis muscle hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training. PLoS One 13(4): 1-20, 2018.

20. Perusse, L, Gagnon, J, Province, MA, Rao, DC, Wilmore, JH, Leon, AS, et al. Familial aggregation of submaximal aerobic performance in the HERITAGE family study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(4): 597-604, 2001.

21. Pickering, C, and Kiely, J. Do non-responders to exercise exist-and if so, what should we do about them? Sports Medicine 49(1): 1-7, 2018.

22. Prentice, RL, Mossavar-Rahmani, Y, Huang, Y, Van Horn, L, Beresford, SA, Caan, B, et al. Evaluation and comparison of food records, recalls, and frequencies for energy and protein assessment by using recovery biomarkers. American Journal of Epidemiology 174(5): 591-603, 2011.

23. Ross, R, de Lannoy, L, and Stotz, P. Separate effects of intensity and amount of exercise on interindividual cardiorespiratory fitness response. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 90(11): 1506-1514, 2015.

24. Tajra, V, Tibana, RA, Vieira, DCL, de Farias, DL, Teixeira, TG, Funghetto, SS, et al. Identification of high responders for interleukin-6 and creatine kinase following acute eccentric resistance exercise in elderly obese women. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17(6): 662-666. 2014.

25. Wilmore, JH, Stanforth, PR, Gagnon, J, Rice, T, Mandel, S, Leon, AS, et al. Cardiac output and stroke volume changes with endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(1): 99-106, 2001.

Photo of Ronald L. Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT, TSAC-F
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Ronald L. Snarr, PhD, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT, TSAC-F

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Ronald Snarr is an Assistant Professor and Human Performance Lab Director at Georgia Southern University. He holds a PhD in Exercise Physiology/Huma ...

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Gina Hogan

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Gina Hogan is a first-year master’s student at Georgia Southern University, where she works as a research assistant. Hogan received her Bachelor of ...

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Jordan Brown

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Jordan Brown is a first-year master’s student at Georgia Southern University, where she is also working as a research assistant. Brown received her ...

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